Liquid Dynamics and Pressure





three or more. 1 several. 2 a few. 3 a few. 4 several. 5

Liquid Flow Unit Pump Test Unit Hydraulics bench and accessories Movement Curve Determination for Non-Newtonian Fluids Fixed and Fluidized Bed

Information which initially seem less likely will, even in scant explanation, drop the cloak which has concealed them and stand on in naked and simple natural beauty. GALILEO GALILEI



Keywords: Pressure loss, straight pipe, pipe bend, pinhole meter, venturi meter.

a few. 1 . 1 ) Object

The object of this research is to investigate the variations in substance pressure pertaining to flow in straight pipes, through water pipe bends, fixtures, orifice and venturi yards.

3. 1 . 2 . Theory

When a smooth flows along a pipe, chaffing between the liquid and the pipe wall triggers a loss of energy. This energy reduction shows on its own as a accelerating fall in pressure along the water pipe and varies with the level of the stream. The head damage due to friction can be worked out by the expression: Lu 2 пЃІ M

hf пЂЅ 4п‚ґ farreneheit п‚ґ

(3. 1 . 1)


hf: head reduction due to scrubbing, m INGESTING WATER D: size of water pipe, m farrenheit: friction aspect g: acceleration due to the law of gravity, m/sec2 T: length of water pipe, m u: mean speed, m/sec пЃІ: density of fluid, kg/m3

The transform of way forced over a fluid when it negotiates a bend produces turbulence inside the fluid and a accompanying loss of strength. The net loss in pressure is higher than that for the similar length of right pipes. Instant changes of direction create greater turbulence and larger strength losses than do effortlessly contoured alterations.



When a fluid moves through an spray hole or a venturi meter, a loss of pressure energy occurs due to the turbulent flow created. An aligned line relation exists involving the flow rate and the square root of the pressure drop value, which principle can be utilized in the appearance of the spray hole and venturi meters.

The internal construction of countless pipe accessories leads to the construction of substance flowing through them triggering turbulence of varying degree with a consequent energy loss. This patterns can be obviously shown using gate and globe regulators in comparison with each other. A world valve may cause an energy damage even when completely open. Partly closed position of possibly of these regulators increases appreciably the energy loss across them compared with the fully available position. strength losses throughout a fitting are observed in the experiment by noting the pressure drops throughout each of these valves.


several. 1 . three or more. Apparatus The apparatus found in this test is shown in Determine 3. 1 . 1 . It consists of 14 main parts. 5 a few




being unfaithful




4 11 11


on the lookout for 1 2 12 13 14

Physique 3. 1 ) 1 . The fluid circulation unit.

1 . Pump installment payments on your Flexible joint 3. Drinking water pressure determine 4. Liquefied flowmeter 5. Vent control device 6. Cylindrical vessel (50 lt) 7. Venturi-meter eight. Orifice-meter on the lookout for. Make-up joint 10. Staright pipe section 11. Numerous pipe accessories 12. Gateway valve 13. Globe control device 14. Drain valve


Chapter several: FLUID MOVEMENT

3. 1 . 4. Experimental Procedure

A. Straight water lines, pipe bends, orifice and venturi yards

1 .

Pick the pipe line where the experiment will be performed by turning of the isolation valves for any other lateral pipe operates.

2 . three or more. 4. five.

Be sure that water manometers are connected to the pressure tappings examine zero. Make sure that isolating device on the selected pipe manage is completely open. Shut off the flow control device. Operate the control device to give consecutively, sequentially higher circulation rates (9 times) and note manometer readings for each case.


With the same flow costs, repeat the experiment once more to avoid wrong or insufficient data.

B. Pipe fixtures

1 . installment payments on your

Apply measures 1 through 4 from the procedure (A) and then continue with the following ones. While using valves completely open, operate the control valve to offer successively larger flow costs, noting the manometer blood pressure measurements for each case.

3. four.

Repeat step 2 with the door...



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